Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify patient needs and expectations that can be utilized to inform the design or renovation of medical–surgical patient rooms in a hospital.
Background: There is an increased interest in supportive room design to increase patient satisfaction and improve the healing process.
Methods: Patients’ and family caregivers’ reactions were elicited to intentional room elements embedded in a set of five full-scale simulated room prototypes. Small groups of patients and caregivers toured two of the five rooms and provided verbal and written evaluations of room features. A grounded theory approach was employed to generate a codebook, identify the frequency of codes, and to group codes and memos into emerging themes. Insights from emergent themes were compared with findings from written surveys on the importance of various room design elements completed at the beginning of each session.
Results: A theoretical design framework was generated, showing patients expect a hospital room that provides them with the core components of comfort to support healing, facilitates a strong sense of connection to people and the outside world, enables quick and independent access to the patient’s things, and offers suitable levels of control to the patient throughout their hospital stay.
Conclusions: The implications for assisting architects, healthcare planners, and interior space designers are described using this framework, as well as its potential for design guidance. In addition, the connection between patient-centered room elements and relevant survey questions in publicly reported patient satisfaction scores for hospitals is discussed.
Emily S. Patterson, PhD
Dr. Emily Patterson is an Associate Professor in the Division of Health Information Management and Systems, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Medicine at the Ohio State University. She has a PhD in Industrial and Systems Engineering from Ohio State University. Dr. Patterson applies human factors engineering to improve patient safety and quality in healthcare. Her research focus areas include communication during transitions of care and health informatics.
Steven A. Lavender, PhD
Steve Lavender is an associate professor in Integrated Systems Engineering and Orthopaedics at The Ohio State University. His research focuses on the development and evaluation of ergonomic improvements to work processes. Recent projects include the design of med/surg patient rooms to meet the needs of all occupations that work in med/surg rooms, the development of ergonomic interventions for the patient handling tasks performed by EMS responders, developing ergonomic interventions for imaging technologists, biomechanical evaluations of emergency evacuation devices used in high rise buildings, assessing the efficacy of interventions aimed at lower extremity discomfort in distribution centers, and investigations into the factors that affect the adoption of ergonomic interventions.