Objective: To investigate what key stakeholders consider to be the advantages and the opportunities for improvement in using lean thinking and tools in the integrated project delivery (IPD) process.
Method: A detailed literature review was followed by case study of a Lean-IPD project. Interviews with members of the project leadership team, focus groups with the integrated team as well as the design team, and an online survey of all stakeholders were conducted.
Analysis: Statistical analysis and thematic content analysis were used to analyze the data, followed by a plus–delta analysis.
Results: (1) Learning is a large, implicit benefit of Lean-IPD that is not currently captured by any success metric; (2) the cardboard mock-up was the most successful lean strategy; (3) although a collaborative project, the level of influence of different stakeholder groups was perceived to be different by different stake- holders; (4) overall, Lean-IPD was rated as better than traditional design–bid–build methods; and (5) opportunities for improvement reported were increase in accurate cost estimating, more efficient use of time, perception of imbalance of control/influence, and need for facilitation (which represents different points of view).
Conclusion: While lean tools and an IPD method are preferred to traditional design–bid–build methods, the perception of different stakeholders varies and more work needs to be done to allow a truly shared decision-making model. Learning was identified as one of the biggest advantages.
Upali Nanda, PhD, Assoc. AIA, EDAC
Associate Principal and Director of Research
Dr. Upali Nanda is a published author, speaker and researcher with extensive experience in designing, spearheading and implementing research projects in design practice. Her research focuses on the impact of design on human health, organizational effectiveness and systemic wellbeing. She is the Director of Research for HKS, responsible for spearheading and implementing research projects globally. She also serves as the Executive Director for the non-profit Center for Advanced Design Research and Education. She is a member of the Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture (ANFA) Advisory Council, the AIA Research Advisory for Design& Health, and the AAH research council. Additionally, she serves as member of the editorial boards for Healthcare Environments Research and Design Journal and the Journal of Hospital Administration. Her doctoral work on “Sensthetics” has been published as a book available on Amazon.com, and she has published extensively in peer-reviewed journals and main stream media. Her research has been awarded the European Healthcare Design Research Award and two EDRA CORE awards, and she has been the recipient of numerous national grants. In 2015 Dr. Nanda was recognized as one of the top 10 most influential people in Healthcare Design for research, by the Healthcare Design Magazine.
Zofia K. Rybkowski, PhD
Associate Professor, Department of Construction Science of the College of Architecture
Texas A&M University
Dr. Rybkowski’s research experience includes Integrated Project Delivery, productivity analysis and lean construction, simulation development and testing, target value design, life cycle cost analysis, sustainable design and evidence-based design. She has extensive experience as a construction, architectural, and engineering researcher and consultant. She has consulted for firms in Boston, San Francisco, Tokyo and Hong Kong, and has offered Lean and Target Value Design workshops to such varied organizations as the Penrose/St. Francis Healthcare and Walt Disney Imagineering. Dr. Rybkowski holds degrees from Stanford, Brown, Harvard, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, and the University of California, Berkeley. She earned her BS in biology from Stanford University, MS in biology from Brown University, MArch degree in architecture from the Harvard Graduate School of Design and her MS and PhD in civil and environmental engineering from the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Rybkowski teaches Lean-IPD to advanced construction science students at Texas A&M University. She is a Fellow at the Center for Health Systems and Design and at the Institute for Applied Creativity. She is a LEED AP.
Bernita Beikmann, AIA, EDAC, LSSBB,
Principal with HKS, Inc
Executive Vice President, and Director of Project Delivery for the Health Group
Bernita has served integral roles as a project architect, project manager at HKS for the last 22 years, and a coach and facilitator for project teams. As a Lean Six Sigma Black Belt, she works with all departments at HKS to improve internal processes. Ms. Beikmann is currently serving on the joint committee for the AIA and AGC and the LCI Board.