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Overview

Maternity care patient rooms (typically LDR and LDRP rooms) represent a specialty design area that requires expertise, knowledge, and attention on the whole birthing process, which is often a time of great expectations, excitement, as well as pain and anxiety.

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  • Layout - Overall

    Desirable Outcome
    Improved patient mobility and reduced falls
    Design Strategies
    • Space for clearly defined patient / newborn / family / caregiver zones citation
    • Clearances for wheelchair, furniture and medical equipment
    • Clearance between bed and chair enabling pivot-turn for wheelchair
    • Bathroom door visible to the patient while in bed citation
    • Large bathroom door openings to accommodate patient, attached equipment and caregiver citation
    • No equipment or other obstruction in the path from bed to bathroom citation
    • Adequate numbers of patient rooms and bathrooms designed specifically for bariatric patients
    • Spatial clearance (e.g. door width) for bariatric patients
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced risk of contamination
    Design Strategies
    • Single bed patient room citation
    • Private bathroom for individual patients citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Efficient delivery of care
    Design Strategies
    • All elements in the patient room located and oriented uniformly across all patient rooms
    • {"Space allotted based on detailed analysis of mobile equipment (such as"=>"intravenous [IV] pumps, medication cart, crash cart, portable lifts, telemedicine equipment) which may be used in the room, and their location"}
    • A clear path to move the bed / bassinet in / out of room
    • Minimum environmental obstacles that interfere with care delivery (e.g. starting an intravenous [IV] pump, monitoring vitals, helping patient to bathroom) citation
    • Clearly defined zones for patient, newborn(s), family and caregiver (including newborn examination and bassinet locations) citation
    • Adjacencies to minimize staff walking and increase efficiency
    • Sufficient space and provision for equipment, medical gases, and power capacity to accommodate different levels of patient acuity including codes citation
    • Locations of equipment for both mother and newborn(s) during various birthing stages verified with various caregivers for ease of access and use when needed
    • Sufficient spaces for the use of bedside electronic medical records (in-room EMR devices including computers, barcode scanners, etc.)
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved communication
    Design Strategies
    • Place for a physician / nurse to sit / stand around the patient bed to converse with the patient
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved Job satisfaction
    Design Strategies
    • Large single rooms citation
    • Flexible patient room layout accommodating care activities when patient needs change (e.g. sufficient spaces for various care activities, single room maternity care) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced patient stress, anxiety
    Design Strategies
    • Single-bed patient rooms citation
    • Nature view out of window in patient's line of sight citation
    • Unappealing elements hidden from view (trash cans, soiled linen, scrub basin, sharps container, etc.)
    • Spaces (e.g. space around bed for movement) supports multiple labor / birthing / breastfeeding postures (e.g. upright position) and movements (walk, sit, kneel, rest, lie down) citation
    • Private bathroom with sufficient space for labor and delivery (e.g. drainage not blocked by use of birth ball if included) citation
    • Spaces supporting massaging citation
    • Spaces supporting baby room-in
    • Bathroom design support perinatal care (e.g. space for mother and newborns, space for changing diapers)
    • Space supporting breastfeeding (e.g. lactation supplies, breast milk storage, pump assembly work surface) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved patient sense of control
    Design Strategies
    • Patient visibility and control of room entrance citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved patient satisfaction
    Design Strategies
    • Single-bed patient rooms citation
    • Flexible patient room layout accommodating care activities when patient needs change (e.g. labor, delivery, recovery and / or postpartum [LDR / LDRP] rooms vs. separate rooms) to reduce need for patient transfers citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved comfort
    Design Strategies
    • Accommodation for amenities for patient and family as considered appropriate, such as power outlets, refrigerator, drinking water, hot water, snacks, phones, etc.
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced noise
    Design Strategies
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced privacy
    Design Strategies
    • Single-bed patient rooms citation
    • Minimum perceived visibility from corridor or public:caregiver can see the patient in a manner that protects patient's privacy
    • Enclosed seating area (e.g. alcoves, windows areas) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced security
    Design Strategies
    • A clear path for caregiver exiting from room in case of any violence from patient or family members
    • Room doors under staff visual monitoring (visibility from nursing station)
    • Room doors distant from unit / stairwell exits
    • Bathroom space to accommodate mother and newborn bassinet
    Desirable Outcome
    Change-readiness / future-proofing
    Design Strategies
    • Adequate room size to absorb additional functions as needed (such as an additional bed in case of emergencies
  • Layout - Staff zone

    Desirable Outcome
    Safe delivery of care
    Design Strategies
    • Medication Safety Zones (MSZ) identified within the patient room
    • MSZ located out of circulation paths to limit interruption and distraction citation
    • Space provided for medication associated equipment (e.g. barcode reader) and safety technology (e.g. computerized physician order entry [CPOE]) in the MSZ citation
    • Space provided for mobile medication-dispensing cart (if used)
    • Organized and uncluttered workspace in the MSZ
    • Sharps container that is easy to access
    Desirable Outcome
    Efficient delivery of care
    Design Strategies
    • Space for charting (electronic medical record [EMR] and manual) away from sink
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced security
    Design Strategies
    • Space for newborn bassinet on the side of mother's bed opposite of the door
  • Layout - Patient zone

    Desirable Outcome
    Safe delivery of care
    Design Strategies
    • Room layout that minimizes walking distance from nursing stations to patient bed citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Efficient delivery of care
    Design Strategies
    • Space at headwall / footwall for emergency procedures
    • Bed and chair clearances for safe patient handling
    • Space for preparation for clinical procedures
    • Space for people and equipment in a code blue response
    • Space accommodation for patient handling / movement equipment (e.g. ceiling lifts, newborn transport equipment) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced noise
    Design Strategies
    • Bed location / orientation to move patient head away from the door (without compromising patient monitoring
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced patient stress, anxiety
    Design Strategies
    • Baby care supplies easily reachable by the mother
    • Provision of patient education (e.g. instructions for bathing, diapering, feeding, and soothing baby)
  • Layout - Family zone

    Desirable Outcome
    Improved communication
    Design Strategies
    • Family space positioned in line of sight of staff so they can be included in the conversation
    • Furniture configured to facilitate communication
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved family presence and engagement in patient care
    Design Strategies
    • Furniture (desk / chair / sleeper chair) that does not encroach into the patient / caregiver zone
    • Family ability to see and hear the TV without disturbing the patient
    • Visual connection between family and patient zones
    • Ability for family to reach out and touch patient, and provide bedside care
    • Access to areas outside of patient room, but in close proximity for family breaks (lounge, meditation room) citation
  • Flooring

    Desirable Outcome
    Improved patient mobility and reduced falls
    Design Strategies
    • Flush flooring transitions citation
    • Flooring stable, firm and slip-resistant, especially around water usage area (e.g. bath, shower)
    • Minimum joints and seams to ensure that sharp edged objects, like walking sticks or heels, do not cause trips
    • Low reflectance value (LRV) of finish to minimize glare citation
    • Low contrast in flooring patterns citation
    • Minimum changes between flooring types within the room citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced risk of injury
    Design Strategies
    • Flooring with energy-absorbent properties (to absorb the force of impact that causes injury, for example rubber) balanced with firmness (to reduce the risk of falling due to poor balance) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced risk of contamination
    Design Strategies
    • Smooth surfaces, with minimum perforations and crevices
    • Minimum ridges or reveals that could serve as dust collectors
    • Manufacturers' recommended cleaning protocols for the selected surface and finish materials compatible with recommendations by CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities citation
    • Coved right angles between wall and floor
    • Joints and seams treated for easy clean / maintenance
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved staff health
    Design Strategies
    • Balance of floor cushioning for underfoot comfort with roller mobility to address staff fatigue associated with standing as well as pushing heavy equipment citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved job satisfaction
    Design Strategies
    • Attractive design in staff work zone and other areas (non-institutional materials and colors) citation
    • High durability to minimize visual cracks, stains and damages
    • Noise-reduction measures in patient room including staff work zone (e.g. sound absorbing finishes) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced patient stress, anxiety
    Design Strategies
    • Non-glare finishes
    • Floor that does not scratch / scuff easily
    • Non-institutional appearance citation
    • Noise reduction measures (e.g. sound-absorbing finish materials) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved patient satisfaction
    Design Strategies
    • Non-glare finishes
    • Floor that does not scratch / scuff easily
    • Non-institutional appearance citation
    • Noise reduction measures (e.g. sound-absorbing finish materials) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced noise
    Design Strategies
    • Flooring with high sound absorbing properties and low sound transmitting properties citation
    • Floor finish and sub-floor conditions that mitigate noise levels transmitted by adjacent spaces citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced privacy
    Design Strategies
    • Sound absorption or blocking measures to minimize sound transmission between patient rooms, and between patient rooms and corridors citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced durability
    Design Strategies
    • Materials that can prevent the growth of mildew and mold due to moisture retention citation
    • Materials with high lifecycle performance: minimum wear and tear over time; sustaining recommended cleaning protocols citation
    • Flooring that sustains the impact of mobile equipment (e.g. flooring materials including adhesive compatible with equipment weight to avoid indentation) and other frequent wear and tear citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved air quality
    Design Strategies
    • Minimum emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
    • Materials that meet guidelines laid out in Green Guide for Healthcare 2007; and Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) for Healthcare Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
    • Minimum need for surface coating and aerosol spray cleaners
    • Low toxicity of materials used
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced sustainability
    Design Strategies
    • Finish materials with low hazardous content including plasticizers, volatile organic compounds, latex, and so on citation
    • Finish materials' production associated with less energy use and lower level of greenhouse gas emission or recyclable materials citation
  • Wall

    Desirable Outcome
    Improved patient mobility and reduced falls
    Design Strategies
    • Supported path (e.g. handrail) from bed to bathroom citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced risk of contamination
    Design Strategies
    • Smooth surfaces, with minimum perforations and crevices
    • Minimum ridges or reveals that could serve as dust collectors
    • Manufacturers' recommended cleaning protocols for the selected surface and finish materials compatible with recommendations by CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities citation
    • Joints and seams treated for easy clean / maintenance
    • Wipe-able / washable, easy-to-clean / disinfect High Touch Surfaces with minimal joints / seams in the room citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Efficient delivery of care
    Design Strategies
    • Medical gases / power outlets mirrored on either side of the bed
    • Convenient nurse control over lighting and temperature
    • Locations of connections, outlets for both mother and newborn(s) during various birthing stages (e.g. labor aids, oxygen, suction, nitrous oxide outlets for both mother and newborn, newborn warmer, charting) verified with various caregivers for ease of access and use when needed
    • Sound-absorbing finish materials to reduce overall background noise level and consequently reduce the alarm volume level
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved job satisfaction
    Design Strategies
    • Attractive design in staff work zone and other areas (overall aesthetics, non-institutional materials and colors) citation
    • High durability for all elements (e.g. materials) to minimize visual cracks, stains and damages
    • Noise-reduction measures in patient room including staff work zone (e.g. sound absorbing finishes) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced patient stress, anxiety
    Design Strategies
    • Non-glare finishes
    • Non-institutional looking finish materials (e.g. subtle / soft contemporary color, texture variety) citation
    • Noise reduction measures (e.g. sound-absorbing finishes) citation
    • Nature / mother / baby-themed artwork (print, electronic, or immersive) with unambiguous, clear, and culturally appropriate content in patient's line of sight (ensure that visibility is not impaired by glare) citation
    • Display areas for personal mementos and gifts (flowers and cards) citation
    • Access to private courtyard or garden citation
    • Access to music (with choice and volume control) citation
    • Familiar smells, fresh air from operable windows citation
    • Presence of clock and watch for patient's orientation to the time of day citation
    • Soundproof walls to block external noise (e.g. planes, traffic), if needed
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced patient sense of control
    Design Strategies
    • Patient control of adjustable temperature, varied / dimmable lighting and shade, and entertainment within reach of bed and chair
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved patient engagement
    Design Strategies
    • Patient access to electronic media for education and entertainment
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved patient satisfaction
    Design Strategies
    • Positive visual distractions (e.g. nature scene artworks) citation
    • Positive audio distractions (e.g. music, nature sounds) citation
    • Non-institutional looking finish materials, fixtures, and furniture citation
    • Noise reduction measures (e.g. sound-absorbing finishes) citation
    • Intuitive and easy-to-use environmental controls
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced noise
    Design Strategies
    • Wall construction and finish blocking / absorbing sound from outside, corridor, and adjacent rooms citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved air quality
    Design Strategies
    • Minimum emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
    • Materials that meet guidelines laid out in Green Guide for Healthcare 2007; and Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) for Healthcare Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
    • Minimum need for surface coating and aerosol spray cleaners
    • Low toxicity of materials used
    Desirable Outcome
    Change readiness / future-proofing
    Design Strategies
    • Electrical power, data and medical gas outlets (number and spacing) in all zones (headwall, footwall, caregiver, patient and family zone
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced sustainability
    Design Strategies
    • Cost-effective insulation materials on exterior wall citation
    • Finish materials with low hazardous content including plasticizers, volatile organic compounds, latex, and so on citation
    • Finish materials' production associated with less energy use and lower level of greenhouse gas emission or recyclable materials citation
  • Ceiling

    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced risk of contamination
    Design Strategies
    • Smooth surfaces, with minimum perforations and crevices
    • Minimum ridges or reveals that could serve as dust collectors
    • Manufacturers' recommended cleaning protocols for the selected surface and finish materials compatible with recommendations by CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities citation
    • Joints and seams treated for easy clean / maintenance
    Desirable Outcome
    Safe delivery of care
    Design Strategies
    • Noise-reduction measures to reduce noise level in MSZ (e.g. sound absorbing finishes, soundless alarms) citation
    • Sound-absorbing finish materials to reduce overall background noise level and consequently reduce the alarm volume level
    Desirable Outcome
    Efficient delivery of care
    Design Strategies
    • Noise-reduction measures to reduce noise level in MSZ (e.g. sound absorbing finishes, soundless alarms) citation
    • Sound-absorbing finish materials to reduce overall background noise level and consequently reduce the alarm volume level
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved job satisfaction
    Design Strategies
    • Attractive design in staff work zone and other areas (overall aesthetics, non-institutional materials and colors) citation
    • High durability for all elements (e.g. materials) to minimize visual cracks, stains and damages
    • Noise-reduction measures in patient room including staff work zone (e.g. sound absorbing finishes) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced patient stress, anxiety
    Design Strategies
    • Non-glare finishes
    • Non-institutional looking finish materials (e.g. subtle / soft contemporary color, texture variety) citation
    • Noise reduction measures (e.g. sound-absorbing finish materials) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved patient satisfaction
    Design Strategies
    • Non-glare finishes
    • Non-institutional looking finish materials (e.g. subtle / soft contemporary color, texture variety) citation
    • Noise reduction measures (e.g. sound-absorbing finish materials) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced noise
    Design Strategies
    • Use of acoustic tiles with high noise reduction coefficient (NRC) ratings citation
    • Sound-absorbing ceiling construction and finish citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved air quality
    Design Strategies
    • Minimum emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
    • Materials that meet guidelines laid out in Green Guide for Healthcare 2007; and Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) for Healthcare Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
    • Minimum need for surface coating and aerosol spray cleaners
    • Low toxicity of materials used
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced sustainability
    Design Strategies
    • Finish materials with low hazardous content including plasticizers, volatile organic compounds, latex, and so on citation
    • Finish materials' production associated with less energy use and lower level of greenhouse gas emission or recyclable materials citation
  • Window

    Desirable Outcome
    Improved job satisfaction
    Design Strategies
    • Daylight accessible to staff when working in patient rooms citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced patient stress, anxiety
    Design Strategies
    • Presence of windows (with patient controlled shades) and other daylight harvesting methods (such as skylights) citation
    • Large windows for natural daylight and window views citation
    • Soundproof windows / walls to block external noise (e.g. planes, traffic), if needed
    • Non-institutional looking finish materials citation
    • Glare sources (window) designed to minimize patient discomfort
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved patient satisfaction
    Design Strategies
    • Presence of windows (with patient controlled shades) and other daylight harvesting methods (such as skylights) citation
    • Large windows for natural daylight and window views citation
    • Soundproof windows / walls to block external noise (e.g. planes, traffic), if needed
    • Non-institutional looking finish materials citation
    • Glare sources (window) designed to minimize patient discomfort
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced privacy
    Design Strategies
    • Prevention of patient being viewed from outside through exterior windows
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved air quality
    Design Strategies
    • Minimum emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
    • Materials that meet guidelines laid out in Green Guide for Healthcare 2007; and Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) for Healthcare Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
    • Minimum need for surface coating and aerosol spray cleaners
    • Low toxicity of materials used
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced sustainability
    Design Strategies
    • Double-glazed windows, low U-value (measure of heat loss) glazing citation
    • Solar shading (e.g. reflective internal solar shadings) citation
    • Materials with low hazardous content including plasticizers, volatile organic compounds, latex, and so on citation
    • Materials' production associated with less energy use and lower level of greenhouse gas emission or recyclable materials citation
  • Door

    Desirable Outcome
    Improved patient mobility and reduced falls
    Design Strategies
    • Bathroom door is visible to the patient while in bed citation
    • Large door openings to accommodate patient, attached equipment and caregiver citation
    • Spatial clearance (e.g. door width) for bariatric patients
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced risk of contamination
    Design Strategies
    • Wipe-able / washable, easy-to-clean / disinfect High Touch Surfaces with minimal joints / seams (e.g. door knobs) in the room citation
    • Smooth surfaces, with minimum perforations and crevices
    • Minimum ridges or reveals that could serve as dust collectors
    • Manufacturers' recommended cleaning protocols for the selected surface and finish materials compatible with recommendations by CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Guidelines for Environmental Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities citation
    • Joints and seams treated for easy clean / maintenance
    Desirable Outcome
    Safe delivery of care
    Design Strategies
    • Minimum visual obstacles between nursing stations and patient head (e.g. glass doors, windows on doors)
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved patient sense of control
    Design Strategies
    • Patient control of room entrance (e.g. sign requesting privacy) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved patient satisfaction
    Design Strategies
    • Non-institutional looking finish materials citation
    • Noise reduction measures (e.g. sound-absorbing finishes) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced noise
    Design Strategies
    • Door construction and finish blocking / absorbing sound from outside, corridor, and adjacent rooms citation
    • Minimal noise from equipment operation (e.g. door closure, curtain track)
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved privacy
    Design Strategies
    • Sound absorption or blocking measures (e.g. acoustic ceiling tile) to minimize sound transmission between patient rooms, and between patient rooms and corridors
    • Minimum perceived visibility from corridor or public areas (e.g. windowless door):caregiver can see the patient in a manner that protects patient's privacy citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved durability
    Design Strategies
    • Door warrantied for prolonged time
    • Materials that can prevent the growth of mildew and mold due to moisture retention citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved air quality
    Design Strategies
    • Minimum emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
    • Materials that meet guidelines laid out in Green Guide for Healthcare 2007; and Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) for Healthcare Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
    • Minimum need for surface coating and aerosol spray cleaners
    • Low toxicity of materials used
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced sustainability
    Design Strategies
    • Materials with low hazardous content including plasticizers, volatile organic compounds, latex, and so on citation
    • Materials' production associated with less energy use and lower level of greenhouse gas emission or recyclable materials citation
  • HVAC

    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced risk of contamination
    Design Strategies
    • Easy-to-clean HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) equipment citation
    • Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) filters citation
    • High-efficiency particulate absorption (HEPA) filters citation
    • Uniform, non-mixed airflow patterns whereby contaminants are directed toward exhaust registers and grilles citation
    • Negative-pressured rooms for infectious patients, as needed citation
    • Positive-pressured rooms for immunocompromised patients, as needed citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved comfort
    Design Strategies
    • Ventilation and air conditioning system accommodates temperature differences during different seasons citation
    • Air exchange rate to avoid stuffiness without causing drafts citation
    • Additional heating for mother and newborn(s) (e.g. blanket warmer)
    • Quiet heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced durability
    Design Strategies
    • Equipment warrantied for prolonged time
    • Insulating material for the variable air flow units selected to function for the projected lifecycle for the unit citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved air quality
    Design Strategies
    • High rate of air changes per hour citation
    • Positioning of ventilation grilles on the ceiling for efficient ventilation and comfort citation
    • Equipment and other measures to monitor and control air quality (e.g. filtration, physical barriers) during construction / renovation
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced sustainability
    Design Strategies
    • Energy-efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems citation
  • Lighting

    Desirable Outcome
    Improved patient mobility and reduced falls
    Design Strategies
    • Night-lighting located between bed and bathroom citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced risk of contamination
    Design Strategies
    • Minimum ridges, reveals, or horizontal surfaces on objects that could serve as dust collectors
    Desirable Outcome
    Safe delivery of care
    Design Strategies
    • Task-lighting in the MSZ for
      1. Computer order entry and handwritten order-processing if performed in the patient room
      2. Medication preparation and administration
      3. Visual confirmation of the correct patient (reading arm band), correct medication and dosage, identification and observation of the administration site citation
    • Natural and artificial lighting (quantity, quality and locations) for patient monitoring and assessment
    • Lighting enabling caregiver to check on the patient and equipment (intravenous [IV] pump etc.) during the night without disturbing patient
    Desirable Outcome
    Efficient delivery of care
    Design Strategies
    • Lighting at point of care and around patient bed for detailed examination of patient
    • Lighting to support patient care activities in the room without disturbing the patient at all times of the day / night
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced patient stress, anxiety
    Design Strategies
    • Lighting design allows lighting variation (i.e. bright light during daytime and reduced light during nighttime) for the purpose of maintaining patients' circadian rhythm citation
    • Non-institutional looking finish materials (e.g. subtle / soft contemporary color, texture variety, soft / yielding furnishing) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved patient satisfaction
    Design Strategies
    • Lighting design allows lighting variation (i.e. bright light during daytime and reduced light during nighttime) for the purpose of maintaining patients' circadian rhythm citation
    • Non-institutional looking finish materials (e.g. subtle / soft contemporary color, texture variety, soft / yielding furnishing) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved family presence and engagement in patient care
    Design Strategies
    • Lighting for family space that does not disturb patients
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced sustainability
    Design Strategies
    • Energy-efficient lighting fixtures (e.g. light-emitting diode [LED] lighting fixture)
    • Lighting controls to reduce waste of energy for lighting (e.g. photoelectric dimming system, occupancy sensors) citation
  • Furniture

    Desirable Outcome
    Improved patient mobility and reduced falls
    Design Strategies
    • Furniture sturdy and stable to support patient transfer and weight bearing requirements (including requirements for bariatric patients)
    • Chairs with armrests
    • Easily seen casters for rolling furniture which can be locked
    • Space beneath the chair to support foot position changes
    • Adjustable seat height and back to enable the sit-to-stand movement
    • Furniture designed for bariatric patients
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced risk of injury
    Design Strategies
    • No sharp edges in furniture and fixtures found in patient / caregiver pathways (e.g. rounded corners of casework)
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced risk of contamination
    Design Strategies
    • Minimum ridges, reveals, or horizontal surfaces on objects that could serve as dust collectors
    • Minimum surface joints / seams
    • Smooth & nonporous surfaces
    • Impervious material for upholstery
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced patient stress, anxiety
    Design Strategies
    • Non-institutional looking finish materials (e.g. subtle / soft contemporary color, texture variety, soft / yielding furnishing) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved patient satisfaction
    Design Strategies
    • Non-institutional looking finish materials (e.g. subtle / soft contemporary color, texture variety, soft / yielding furnishing) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved family presence and engagement in patient care
    Design Strategies
    • Comfortable and flexible accommodation / place (e.g. chair, sofa bed) for families to rest or lie down citation
    • Furniture configured to facilitate interaction between patient and family
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved comfort
    Design Strategies
    • Furniture suitable for wide-age and size variations (consider bariatric populations)
    • Sleep sofa / chair comfortable for overnight stay
    • Patient chair comfortable without compromising safety
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced privacy
    Design Strategies
    • Furniture configured to allow patient and family privacy
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced durability
    Design Strategies
    • Furniture warrantied for prolonged time
  • Casework / storage

    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced risk of injury
    Design Strategies
    • No sharp edges in fixtures found in patient / caregiver pathways (e.g. rounded corners of casework)
    • Spaces for storing patient handling / movement devices and accessories when not in use (in room or in other quickly accessible spaces in unit)
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced risk of contamination
    Design Strategies
    • Minimum ridges, reveals, or horizontal surfaces on objects that could serve as dust collectors
    • Top of casework, headwall and other fixed items visible and accessible to facilitate cleaning
    Desirable Outcome
    Efficient delivery of care
    Design Strategies
    • Flexible but defined options for storage of common medical supplies (linens, medication, etc.), close to the patient (in or outside the room) to decrease staff time fetching supplies based on a confirmed supply policy
    • Visual and tactile discrimination between medical supplies through use of size, color and texture
    • Sufficient spaces for storage of bedside electronic medical records (in-room EMR devices including computers, barcode scanners, etc.)
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced patient stress, anxiety
    Design Strategies
    • Minimal visual clutter (e.g. equipment and wires) in the room
    • Equipment and wires hidden from patient view (e.g. stowed away equipment/surgical light, concealed gas outlets) when not in use during certain birthing stages (e.g. labor) but easily accessible when needed citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced patient sense of control
    Design Strategies
    • Provision for secured storage in patient and family zone
    • Bed-side storage accessible to patient lying in bed
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced security
    Design Strategies
    • Provisions to lock patient's valuables
    • Provisions to lock sensitive medical supplies
    Desirable Outcome
    Change-readyness / furture-proofing
    Design Strategies
    • Reconfigurable casework
  • Sink/alcohol gel dispenser

    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced risk of contamination
    Design Strategies
    • Built-in sinks with seamless countertop surface citation
    • Faucets located off-center (to the side of drain) to prevent bio-film splash citation
    • Deep sink basins to prevent splashing from drain to other surfaces citation
    • Water pressure modulated to prevent bio-film splash citation
    • Distance or blockage between sinks and patient area to prevent bio-film splash to patient area citation
    • Wipe-able / washable, easy-to-clean / disinfect High Touch Surfaces with minimal joints / seams (e.g. faucets, sinks) in the room citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved hand sanitation practices
    Design Strategies
    • ICRA (infection control risk assessment) reviewed location
    • Sink / dispenser visible to staff as they enter the room citation
    • Ergonomically design for ease of use (e.g. height suitable for staff population, faucet height / location, lighting, foot pedal [if any] location)
    • Sink / dispenser visible and accessible to patients and family but far away enough to prevent bio-film splash to patient area
    • Visual cues directing attention to sink / dispenser citation
    • Electronic hand hygiene reminders citation
    • Sensor technology for faucets, towel dispensers, alcohol gel dispensers, soap dispensers, etc. citation
    • Other hands free mechanisms (e.g. wrist blades) for faucets, towel dispensers, alcohol gel dispensers, soap dispensers, etc.
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced noise
    Design Strategies
    • Minimal noise from equipment operation
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced sustainability
    Design Strategies
    • Low-consumption flush valves and aerators on toilets, urinals, and lavatory faucets; flow control faucets citation
  • Patient handling / movement equipment (ceiling lifts)

    Desirable Outcome
    Improved patient mobility and reduced falls
    Design Strategies
    • Clear path for use of patient handling / movement equipment (e.g. ceiling-lift) from patient bed to bathroom citation
    • Standing assist aids / lifts with ambulation capacity
    • Patient handling / movement devices specifically designed for bariatric patients
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced risk of injury
    Design Strategies
    • Ceiling lifts for patient handling / movement (e.g. lifting arms / legs, lateral transfers, repositioning for patient care, transportation, and other tasks). Include coverage to the bathroom; using traverse tracks to ensure coverage to key locations in the room
    • Position of ceiling lift tracks for main patient handling / movement tasks (e.g. moving patient from bed to wheelchair, lifting legs/arms, positioning/repositioning) citation
    • Floor (portable) lifts for patient handling / movement; including moving patient to the bathroom citation
    • Other patient handling / movement equipment if included in the functional program (e.g. sling, lateral transfer devices, stand assist aids) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved staff health
    Design Strategies
    • Ceiling lifts for patient handling / movement (e.g. lifting arms/legs, lateral transfers, repositioning for patient care, transportation, and other tasks). Include coverage to the bathroom; using traverse tracks to ensure coverage to key locations in the room
    • Position of ceiling lift tracks for main patient handling / movement tasks (e.g. moving patient from bed to wheelchair, lifting legs / arms, positioning / repositioning) citation
    • Floor (portable) lifts for patient handling / movement; including moving patient to the bathroom citation
    • Other patient handling / movement equipment if included in the functional program (e.g. sling, lateral transfer devices, stand assist aids) citation
  • Communication / monitoring equipment

    Desirable Outcome
    Safe delivery of care
    Design Strategies
    • Noiseless paging / visual alarms and displays
    • Selection of alarm systems with centralized alarms at nursing stations and other features to reduce noise in patient rooms
    • Telemedicine connections
    Desirable Outcome
    Efficient delivery of care
    Design Strategies
    • Noiseless paging / visual alarms and displays
    • Selection of alarm systems with centralized alarms at nursing stations and other features to reduce noise in patient rooms
    • Telemedicine connections
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved communication
    Design Strategies
    • Visible and legible communication systems (such as patient room boards) to provide care team information to patients and families
    • Easily accessible communication system (e.g. telephone, intercom) for staff between patient room and other maternity care spaces (e.g. nursing station, OR)
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced patient stress, anxiety
    Design Strategies
    • Minimum noise sources in / around patient room (e.g. bedside phone) citation
    • Elimination or reduction of noise sources (e.g. alarms, pagers, hands free communication, etc.) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved comfort
    Design Strategies
    • Minimum noise sources in / around patient room (e.g. bedside phone) citation
    • Elimination or reduction of noise sources (e.g. alarms, pagers, hands free communication, etc.) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved family presence and engagement in patient care
    Design Strategies
    • Wireless connectivity / cellphone access
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced security
    Design Strategies
    • Caregiver control over computer screen to allow private entering of information (to protect electronic medical record [EMR] from being viewed by other patients and unrelated staff) as well as sharing of information with patient (when needed)
    • Security system (e.g. infant security system, video monitoring)
    Desirable Outcome
    Change readiness/future-proofing
    Design Strategies
    • Coordination with information technology (IT) and communications experts to plan flexible infrastructure that can adapt to expected future technologies
  • Sound-masking equipment

    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced patient stress, anxiety
    Design Strategies
    • Use of white noise / sound masking to reduce disruptions from noise (e.g. white noise machines) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved comfort
    Design Strategies
    • Use of white noise / sound masking to reduce disruptions from noise (e.g. white noise machines) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced privacy
    Design Strategies
    • Technology to filter / mask external noise such as white noise machine; pillow speaker and access to music citation
  • Privacy curtain

    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced risk of contamination
    Design Strategies
    • Privacy curtains that can be cleaned and disinfected (e.g. waterproof shower curtains) or are dispensable
    • Clips or handles used on privacy curtains to minimize contact area that should be cleaned and disinfected
    • Curtains that can be easily removed for cleaning and re-installed
    • Wipe-able / washable, easy-to-clean / disinfect High Touch Surfaces with minimal joints / seams in the room citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced patient stress, anxiety
    Design Strategies
    • Non-glare finishes
    • Non-institutional looking finish materials (e.g. subtle / soft contemporary color, texture variety) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved patient satisfaction
    Design Strategies
    • Non-glare finishes
    • Non-institutional looking finish materials (e.g. subtle / soft contemporary color, texture variety) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved patient sense of control
    Design Strategies
    • Patient control of room entrance (e.g., privacy curtains controlled by patient) citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced noise
    Design Strategies
    • Minimal noise from equipment operation (e.g. curtain track)
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced privacy
    Design Strategies
    • Minimum perceived visibility from corridor or public areas:caregiver can see the patient in a manner that protects patient's privacy
    Desirable Outcome
    Enhanced durability
    Design Strategies
    • Materials that can prevent the growth of mildew and mold due to moisture retention citation
    • Materials with high lifecycle performance: minimum wear and tear over time; sustaining recommended cleaning protocols citation
    Desirable Outcome
    Improved air quality
    Design Strategies
    • Minimum emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
    • Materials that meet guidelines laid out in Green Guide for Healthcare 2007; and Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) for Healthcare Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)
    • Minimum need for surface coating and aerosol spray cleaners
    • Low toxicity of materials used
  • Maternity care equipment

    Desirable Outcome
    Reduced patient stress, anxiety
    Design Strategies
    • Furniture / equipment (e.g. soft-covered benches, floor mattresses, birth balls, bean bags, balls, pulling ropes, grab bars, round corner, lactation supplies, breast milk storage) supporting multiple labor / birthing / breastfeeding postures (e.g. upright position) and movements (walk, sit, kneel, rest, lie down) citation
    • Bathroom ergonomic design for labor and delivery (e.g. fixture height) citation
    • Pool or large birthing bath (depth to cover legs while sitting, thermostatic control, plumbing for quick filling and emptying, enclosed, at least two-sided access, support bars, shower hose over the bath) citation
    • Equipment supporting massaging (e.g. roller, table, chair, bed) citation
    • Equipment supporting baby room-in (e.g. infant warmer, blanket warmer, bassinet)
    • Equipment supporting breastfeeding (e.g. lactation supplies, nursing pillows) citation