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Knowledge Repository

Nosocomial Transmission of Tuberculosis Associated with a Draining Abscess

Author(s): Hutton, M. D., Stead, W. W., Cauthen, G. M., Bloch, A. B., Ewing, W. M.
Nine secondary cases of tuberculosis and 59 tuberculin skin test conversions occurred after exposure to a hospitalized patient with a large tuberculous abscess of the hip and thigh. Among 442 tuberculin-negative hospital employees, the relative risk of skin test conversion associated with recalled exposure to the patient was 14.0 (95% confidence limits, 6.8, 28.7). Four of 5 surgical suite...
Key Point Summary
Added August 2012

Characteristics and circumstances of falls in a hospital setting

Author(s): Hitcho, E., Krauss, M., Birge, S., Dunagan, W., Fischer, I., Johnson, S., Nast, P. A., Costantinou, E., Fraser, V. J.
Patient falls refer to patients’ unplanned descent to the floor with or without injuries to the patients. Patient falls are common for inpatients, averaging 2.3 to 7 falls per 1,000 patient days. About 30% of the falls lead to injuries, which contribute to higher healthcare cost. In order to prevent falls, it is very important to understand the epidemiology of patient falls, including the characteristics of fallers, the distribution and patterns of falls, contributing factors, and fall-related injuries.
Key Point Summary
Added August 2012

Efficacy of high-efficiency particulate air filtration in preventing aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients with hematologic malignancies

Author(s): Hahn, T., Cummings, K. M., Michalek, A. M., Lipman, B. J., Segal, B. H., McCarthy Jr., P. L.
Invasive aspergillosis is the most serious type of infections caused by the fungus Aspergillus, affecting organs such as heart, lung, brain, and kidneys and causing symptoms such as chest pain, cough, fever, joint pain, shortness of breath, and unintentional weight loss. The fungus aspergillus is widely spread in the nature and rarely causes problems in healthy individuals.
Key Point Summary
Added August 2012

An outbreak of airborne nosocomial varicella

Author(s): Gustafson T. L., Lavely G. B., Brawner Jr., E. R., Hutcheson Jr., R. H., Wright, P. F., Schaffner, W.
An outbreak of nosocomial varicella was traced to airborne spread from an immunocompromised child hospitalized from Nov 11-19, 1980. Seventy potentially susceptible children were hospitalized on the ward during that period. Although the index patient remained in strict room isolation throughout his hospital stay, eight of these patients contracted varicella. The afternoon of November 12 was the...
Key Point Summary
Added August 2012

The Role of Physical Proximity in Nosocomial Diarrhea

Author(s): Chang, V. T., Nelson, K.
To examine physical proximity as a risk factor for the nosocomial acquisition of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) and of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), we assessed a retrospective cohort of 2859 patients admitted to a community hospital from 1 March 1987 through 31 August 1987. Of these patients, 68 had nosocomial CDAD and 54 had nosocomial AAD. In multivariate analysis,...
Key Point Summary
Added August 2012

The Relationship Between Physical Restraint Removal and Falls and Injuries Among Nursing Home Residents

Author(s): Capezuti, E., Strumpf, N. E., Evans, L. K., Grisso, J. A., Maislin, G.
Patient falls refer to patients’ unplanned descent to the floor, either with or without injuries to the patients. Patient falls and related injuries are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and contribute to high healthcare cost. Healthcare organizations have experimented with many fall-prevention programs including restraint reduction and other modifications of the physical environment.
Key Point Summary
Added August 2012

A seasonal pattern of hospital medication errors in Alaska

Author(s): Booker, J. M., Roseman, C.
Specific behavioral consequences of seasonal affective disorder have not been closely examined. Length of daylight is evaluated in relation to medication errors in a medical center located in the far north. Factors such as numbers of patient admissions, discharges, and deaths were controlled with data collected in Anchorage, Alaska, over 5 consecutive years, 1985-89. These data revealed that 58%...
Key Point Summary
Added August 2012